Black Hole

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During each of these outbursts, the X-ray flaring is 20 times brighter than during quiet periods. The temperature of the in-falling gas also rises. It rises from about 1 million degrees Fahrenheit in quieter periods to 2. The higher temperature is about the same as the temperature of gas around most SMBHs that are actively growing. The cause of these regular flares is unknown. The hot 2. But GSN is a unique opportunity to study the phenomenon because the hot gas repeatedly forms then disappears.

Normally, this hot gas is caused by a star being torn apart and consumed by a black hole, or so astronomers think. But the regularity exhibited by GSN is a mystery.

Historic First Images of a Black Hole Show Einstein Was Right (Again)

Again, seeing a supermassive black hole consume gas from a star is nothing new. Thanks to the Chandra observations, the team of scientists knows that the source of the flaring X-rays is right in the heart of GSN For larger SMBHs, much larger than this one, their brightness fluctuations are a lot slower. Rather than erupting every nine hours, it should take them months or even years to flare like this. Those observations relied on repeated observations over months, or even years. But this discovery could explain those observations.

Should this be the case, it would shed some light on a proposal by former Cambridge University cosmologist and theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking who, in the s, explored the possibility that black holes emit particles and radiation — thermal heat — as a result of quantum fluctuations. Hawking calculated that the radiation would cause a black hole to lose energy, shrink and disappear, as described in his paper published in Physical Review D. Given his claims that the radiation emitted would be random and contain no information about what had fallen in, the black hole, upon its explosion, would erase loads of information.

This meant Hawking's idea was at odds with quantum theory, which says information can't be destroyed. Physics states information just becomes more difficult to find because, should it become lost, it becomes impossible to know the past or the future. Hawking's idea led to the 'black hole information paradox' and it has long puzzled scientists. Some have said Hawking was simply wrong, and the man himself even declared he had made an error during a scientific conference in Dublin in So, do we go back to the concept of black holes emitting preserved information and throwing it back out via a white hole?

In their study published in Physical Review Letters , Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University and Rodolfo Gambini at the University of the Republic in Montevideo, Uruguay, applied loop quantum gravity to a black hole and found that gravity increased towards the core but reduced and plonked whatever was entering into another region of the universe. The results gave extra credence to the idea of black holes serving as a portal. In this study, singularity does not exist, and so it doesn't form an impenetrable barrier that ends up crushing whatever it encounters.

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  • Where Do Black Holes Lead??

It also means that information doesn't disappear. They worked on a theory that became known as the AMPS firewall, or the black hole firewall hypothesis.


By their calculations, quantum mechanics could feasibly turn the event horizon into a giant wall of fire and anything coming into contact would burn in an instant. In that sense, black holes lead nowhere because nothing could ever get inside. This, however, violates Einstein's general theory of relativity. Someone crossing the event horizon shouldn't actually feel any great hardship because an object would be in free fall and, based on the equivalence principle, that object — or person — would not feel the extreme effects of gravity.

It could follow the laws of physics present elsewhere in the universe, but even if it didn't go against Einstein's principle it would undermine quantum field theory or suggest information can be lost.

Astronomers Find a Supermassive Black Hole That’s Feasting on a Regular Schedule, Every 9 Hours

Artist's impression of a tidal disruption event which occurs when a star passes too close to a supermassive black hole. Step forward Hawking once more.

In , he published a study in which he eschewed the existence of an event horizon — meaning there is nothing there to burn — saying gravitational collapse would produce an 'apparent horizon' instead. This horizon would suspend light rays trying to move away from the core of the black hole, and would persist for a "period of time. This explanation best fits with quantum theory — which says information can't be destroyed — and, if it was ever proven, it suggests that anything could escape from a black hole. Hawking went as far as saying black holes may not even exist. There would be no singularity, and while the apparent field would move inwards due to gravity, it would never reach the center and be consolidated within a dense mass.

And yet anything which is emitted will not be in the form of the information swallowed. It would be impossible to figure out what went in by looking at what is coming out, which causes problems of its own — not least for, say, a human who found themselves in such an alarming position.

Black Hole | COSMOS

They'd never feel the same again! One thing's for sure, this particular mystery is going to swallow up many more scientific hours for a long time to come. Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto recently suggested that a component of dark matter could be formed by remnants of evaporated black holes, and Hawking's paper on black holes and 'soft hair' was released in , and describes how zero-energy particles are left around the point of no return, the event horizon — an idea that suggests information is not lost but captured.

This flew in the face of the no-hair theorem which was expressed by physicist John Archibald Wheeler and worked on the basis that two black holes would be indistinguishable to an observer because none of the special particle physics pseudo-charges would be conserved. It's an idea that has got scientists talking, but there is some way to go before it's seen as the answer for where black holes lead. If only we could find a way to leap into one. Live Science.

First Image of a Black Hole!

Where does a black hole go?