DNS on Windows 2000

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Again, skip any steps you have already carried out. If you have a forest with more than one domain, or you need to set up trusts between two domains in different forests, so long as both are set up using this configuration i. If you have problems, make sure that your firewall configuration is correct, as per the next section. Also make sure that the domain controllers, including the DNS servers, running in the different domains can communicate with each other through any firewalls that are between them.

Many units run their own firewalls. If you do, you need to be careful about how you configure them regarding DNS traffic. While many things will work with an incorrect configuration, it may give rise to errors in the output from dcdiag and netdiag that can make it harder to identify real problems; also clients and servers can have problems locating services. Problems may be masked because systems fall back on NetBIOS name resolution, but will then become visible if this fails or is disabled. It is recommended that you do not lock your firewall settings for DNS traffic to and from your DNS servers down more than detailed below.

The first two rows are the ones that we most often see configured incorrectly or not allowed at all. In this configuration you can configure clients that are members of the domain either to use the central DNS servers, or to use your Active Directory DNS servers. Additional tools that IT Services use for diagnosing security and configuration issues will only apply for clients using the central servers. If using the central servers, make sure that firewalls are configured correctly as per the previous section or lookups routed through the central resolvers may fail.

Depending on the way in which applications resolve names, occasionally this can cause problems if the name of the system as configured in the [System] control panel and shown in Active Directory does not match the first part of the client's registered DNS name. This is most likely to be a problem for software that expects to locate workstations by appending the DNS suffix to the name registered in Active Directory.

Checking the operation with a machine where the name configured matches the name registered in DNS should reveal whether this is the problem. The simplest solution to this issue is to make sure that the names match; if this is impossible other workarounds normally exist. If the network connection between your unit and IT Services is unavailable then you may find that logging in becomes very slow, or experience other name resolution issues. This happens because although most Active Directory records are registered on your local DNS servers, which continue to be accessible, the host records that translate between names of servers and IP addresses are held on the IT Services DNS servers.

If this is a problem for your unit, you may be able to provide resilience by running a secondary name server for the ox. You then need to make sure that your domain controllers are configured to look up requests for ox. You can do this by configuring your DNS servers to forward requests for information about ox. You may be able to configure one of your existing Windows DNS servers to act as this secondary server. To enquire about this service, email IT Services in the usual way. With this option, the central DNS servers continue to manage most of the DNS registrations for clients in your domain, including the host A records for your domain controllers.

You should continue to register the names and IP addresses for your domain controllers, servers and clients in the usual way using the Interface for Host Updates page, linked from the IT Services DNS page. However the main records used to locate Active Directory services are stored in Active Directory-specific subdomains which are managed by DNS running on your Windows servers normally on the domain controllers.

These subdomains are. The zones in the list above should be configured as Active Directory-integrated and to allow secure dynamic updates. The central DNS servers do not allow dynamic updates, so this method gives a good balance between convenience and security.

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One set of records cannot be registered using this method and these are the host records for the domain itself. Each domain controller will normally register this record to resolve to itself. Generally the lack of this record does not cause problems; however there are a couple of scenarios where it may.

Refer to the Known Issues section for further details. In Active Directory, domain controllers needs to register various services in the DNS in order that other domain controllers, servers and clients can locate them and the services they offer.


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There are normally at least 20 or so of these records per domain controller, and some of them are very long and involve GUIDs. The records registered will change with certain operations such as changing global catalog servers and adding domain controllers. Windows servers can register these records dynamically, and because of the number of records and the potential for changes, there is less room for error if domain controllers at least are allowed update the records themselves. For security reasons the main Oxford DNS servers will not allow the dynamic updating of records, so early discussions of interested parties within the University decided that for any unit installing Active Directory, the main DNS servers would delegate responsibility for the subdomains shown above i.

The unit should then configure domain controllers for their Active Directory domain to use the locally installed DNS servers, which will enable them to update their DNS entries dynamically. The following diagram shows the various subdomains for unit. Note that while the local DNS server can be installed on a member server, installing onto a domain controller allows the DNS lookup zones to be Active Directory-integrated , which has two main advantages.

DNS on Windows 2000

Firstly, enhanced security features can be used; for example dynamic updates can be restricted to computers that are members of the domain. Secondly, if you add a second DNS server on another domain controller for fault tolerance, you only need to configure the zones on the first server, not the second, as the zones and records are replicated automatically between domain controllers. There should be nothing in either of them. Click the Next button. For DNS to function correctly, the network must have one or more root servers. Select the correct option for your network.

Configuring a DNS Server - Configuring Windows Server

The Forward Lookup Zone dialog box appears. Choose whether or not this file is created. The Zone Type dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 9. In this dialog box, you specify the type of zone that is created. There are three types of zones that can be configured:.

Zone database files are replicated when Active Directory replication occurs.

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This option is only available on a Domain Controller. This option is used for redundancy and load balancing. Stores the new zone in Active Directory.


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This option provides secure updates and integrated storage. Other Windows and Windows Server domain controllers, servers, and workstations that are part of the domain query DNS to find Active Directory-related information. If DNS is not set up correctly, domain-wide issues can occur such as replication between domain controllers. You may also be unable to log on to the domain or to join the domain from a workstation or server.

Question : What are the common mistakes that are made when administrators set up DNS on network that contains a single Windows or Windows Server domain controller?


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Answer : The most common mistakes are: The domain controller is not pointing to itself for DNS resolution on all network interfaces. The ". Answer : The Netlogon service on the domain controller registers a number of records in DNS that enable other domain controllers and computers to find Active Directory-related information.

wardconhartra.gq You must always configure the DNS client settings on each domain controller's network interface to use the alternative DNS server addresses in addition to the primary DNS server address. Other computers look for these records to find Active Directory-related information. Answer : As long as the ". The root hint servers are well-known servers on the Internet that help all DNS servers resolve name queries. Question : What is the ".

If you do not delete this setting, you may not be able to perform external name resolution to the root hint servers on the Internet. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: DNS server's root hints and forwarder pages are unavailable.