Essays in Animal Behaviour: Celebrating 50 Years of Animal Behaviour
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On the Origin of Species Darwin — contained a chapter on instinct. However, he declined to define it : I will not attempt any definition of instinct. To celebrate the centenary of On the Origin of Species, British biologists published two collections of studies on Darwin's work, which included two commentaries on his behavioral studies Barnett , Maynard Smith , and one on studies on animal communication since Darwin Marler The Origin was the pinnacle of Darwin's achievements, but by no means the end of his researches Boakes :1—8, Richards , Browne , Egerton , — One could argue that Darwin was the effective founder of ethology in three works: the Origin , The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Man , and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals , though without using the term ethology Thorpe :see index, Burkhardt , Richards —, Dugatkin :1— Some drawings in Expression of Emotions were by T.
Canadian immigrant to England George Romanes —94 became a disciple of Darwin's, during Darwin's later years Klopfer and Hailman :7—14, Lesch , Thorpe —25, Singer , Boakes —32, Richards — Yet, Houck and Drickamer thought his Animal Intelligence was important enough to include a brief extract in their source book — How did Darwin's contributions differ from those of White?
White asked nature how it worked, and he reported what he observed. Darwin's Journal of Researches was within that tradition, but beginning with On the Origin of Species, he defended a particular theory on how nature worked, and all his contributions to what we call ethology were contributions to evidence for that theory Fig. Londoner Donald Alexander Spalding about —about , from the working class, attended college for a year and was then admitted to the bar Gray , , Thorpe —26, Singer , Boakes :see index.
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While working in Aberdeen, he attended psychology lectures by Professor Alexander Baines at the University of Aberdeen. He experimented on chicks, before and after hatching, to reveal their instincts and began publishing on instinct in Spalding , Gray , Gray also traced his influence upon later students. He was not satisfied with his situation, however, and continued his studies until he earned a doctorate in science at Paris in Thereafter, he devoted his time to studying insects and publishing books on his findings, and was cited in Darwin's Origin of Species : …M.
Fabre has lately shown good reason for believing that although the Tachytes nigra generally makes its own burrow and stores it with paralysed prey for its own larvae to feed on, yet that when this insect finds a burrow already made and stored by another sphex, it takes advantage of the prize, and becomes for the occasion parasitic. Fabre was no doubt pleased with Darwin's notice of his work, but he did not accept Darwin's or any other theory of evolution.
They were accessible to lay readers, and most were translated into English. In , an American amateur naturalist thought it still worthwhile to republish an anthology of those writings. He was also an attentive and minute observer and a writer of unquestionable talent. How did America's foremost entomologist respond to Fabre's death? William Wheeler, no snob, commented : …the world has lost its greatest entomologist, a man who combined in an extraordinary degree the gifts of a virile and penetrating observer and those of a literary artist of high distinction.
Although he became a priest, he moved to Berlin, —57, in order to study zoology and earn a doctorate in philology. After returning to Munster, he taught natural history and ornithology at the Royal Academy, and he published Der Vogel und sein Leben In , Altum became professor of zoology at the Forestry Academy in Eberswalde, and in he was elected president of the Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft.
Post-copulatory sexual selection and the Zebra Finch
Yet, he also became a determined opponent of Darwin's theory of evolution. He also observed that pairs of birds occupy a territory whose size probably depended upon the amount of food needed to raise their young. He also viewed bird song as used both for attracting a mate and as a notice to other males of the size of their territories. Edwards — and Bostonian Samuel H. Edwards inherited land in West Virginia, which contained rich coal deposits, and he earned his living by running a coal mine.
Scudder, who married into a wealthy family, worked for the Boston Society of Natural History, as a Harvard University librarian, and a U. Geological Survey paleontologist Essig —, Hatch They were correspondents, who sometimes agreed, sometimes disagreed. Edwards was a Darwinian, but Scudder, who had studied under, and worked for Louis Agassiz, was not, for years, but finally accepted the new biology. Scudder actively studied the natural history of many eastern U.
Both entomologists were very productive in research and publications, Scudder especially so. Edwards was first to systematically raise butterflies from eggs to adults and describe and illustrate each stage, indicating, when he could, food plant species of caterpillars. He influenced Scudder to attempt to do likewise. Edwards was also first to illustrate in color all species, and he first described species in which the sexes were of different colors refuting the assumption that they were different species.
Scudder published the first paper tracing the introduction and spread of an invasive European species cabbage butterfly. Both naturalists enlisted the help of amateurs in collecting information and specimens for their books. Thorpe considered Morgan as having made outstanding contributions to both comparative psychology and ethology. He was an early experimenter in comparative psychology, and his contributions were published in 14 books, of which, at least six were relevant to ethology: Introduction to Comparative Psychology , Animal Life and Intelligence —91 , Habit and Instinct , Animal Behaviour , Instinct and Experience , and The Animal Mind Fig.
Selous was a Darwinian, but unorthodox.
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A summation of his studies was his Evolution of Habit in Birds He attended the University of Copenhagen, but left without a degree to teach school. In he received university recognition for an essay on Danish reptiles, and in he became teacher of natural history at the cathedral school of Viborg. He was the first known Dane to take students on field trips. On June 6, he caught two starlings Sturnus vulgaris in one of his bird houses and placed thin zinc rings with date and location engraved on the rings.
However, he concluded the rings were too heavy, and his regular banding only began on June 5, , when he had obtained aluminum bands with inscriptions. That summer he banded starlings, almost all adults. During the next six years he banded birds and received feedback from others who found his banded birds, which indicated migratory routes. The expenses were more than he could afford on his teacher's salary, and he applied in to the Carlsberg Foundation for a grant, which he received then and also again in , , , and By , the practice of bird banding had spread to the United States and Germany Lincoln — Ernest Evan Thompson — was born in a seaside town, South Shields, England, and his family immigrated to Canada when he was 6 years old Wiley , Keller , Anderson , Witt The Thompsons settled on a forested farm in western Ontario, but after four years gave up and moved to Toronto.
However, during those four years Ernest became fascinated by Canada's wildlife, and in Toronto he found others who shared his interests. He aspired to go to a university, but he got TB, dropped out of school, and never went back. He became a skillful wildlife artist, and in he became an apprentice to a Toronto artist and studied at the Ontario School of Art. He won a gold medal at a school contest. In he sailed to England and submitted a drawing to the Royal Academy of Arts for a scholarship, which he did not receive.
He frequented the British Museum's library, where he studied the works of Alexander Wilson and Audubon. In he submitted another drawing to the Royal Academy and won a scholarship, and began his studies there in January He returned to Toronto in October and later joined two brothers who were homesteading in Manitoba. He was more interested in wildlife than in farming and began publishing stories on behavior of animals he observed.
The historian of that controversy, Ralph Lutts, commented : Seton and [Charles] Roberts were both Canadians, and the animal story they created has been called a distinctly Canadian form of literature…. Where the nature literature of the United States focused on the human experience, this new Canadian approach focused on the animal experience. Noteworthy for ethology was Seton's Lives of the Game Animals 4 volumes in 8, —28 , on mammals. Lives fully used Seton's artistic talent, even including some of his animal cartoons. He also included animal photographs. Modern readers will be surprised that he considered chipmunks to be game animals, but he did not consider it necessary to defend their inclusion.
Biological Survey. The word ethology has a Greek origin, ethos, and was introduced into the English language in , meaning the study of character or ethics. However, it did not gain currency then. English historian of biology John Durant divided history of ethology into three phases: 1 formative, until about , when pioneering studies were undertaken, 2 classical, —50, when coherent traditions were established by Lorenz and Tinbergen, and 3 mature, since , indicated by Tinbergen's The Study of Instinct Kirkman — edited the British Bird Book 4 volumes, —13 , devoted to behavior of all British species.
Englishman H. Howard's great insight was to emphasize the importance of territory for many bird species , , and to persuade ornithologists to appreciate territory's significance. Richard Burkhardt considered him, by , to be the most influential biologist in America and an important founder of American ethology, though Whitman seems never to have adopted the term.
His research on pigeons is ethological, for he was probably first to argue that behavior is one aspect of species that can provide evidence for their evolution Lorenz Whitman seems not to have thought of founding a new science, and he did research at a time when natural history flourished Seton being prominent.
He had many irons in the fire, and most of his pigeon research was published in his Posthumous Works volume 3, Fig. Milwaukeean entomologist William Morton Wheeler — earned his Ph. In the annual Zoological Record had begun using ethology as a subject heading, and in Wheeler wrote an article explaining that biology needed a term to designate the study of habits.
He had seen three terms for this used by various researchers: natural history, ecology, and ethology Wheeler He explained that natural history and ecology were better used to designate broader subjects, and that ethology was best to designate study of habits Evans and Evans — Wheeler began publishing on ant ethology , which led to a breakthrough Thorpe : A great achievement of Wheeler in relation to animal behaviour was his discovery of the phenomenon of trophallaxis, i.
This discovery, which was a forerunner of the present work on pheromones in insects, brought clarity and understanding into the study of insect societies…. Wheeler responded energetically to critics Evans and Evans Another Whitman student had a less happy fate: Wallace Craig — He was interested in comparative psychology and earned his doctorate at University of Chicago in , with a dissertation on behavior in ringdove pigeons, and his subsequent research was also mostly on pigeons Durant —, Burkhardt — He obtained employment at the University of Maine teaching psychology and philosophy — His salary there was quite modest and there was no institutional assistance for advancing his research.
In —27 he held three temporary positions at Harvard, and afterwards never held another permanent position, but he continued his research until he died.
Craig was stuck during his career, and to his detriment, at the boundaries between zoology and psychology. A contemporary, psychologist Robert Yerkes — , occupied similar territory, but always as a psychologist, and therefore more securely Hilgard , Burnham , Boakes —, — He earned his M.
He founded the Journal of Animal Behavior in , the first such scientific journal, with the expectation that all animal behaviorists, whether zoological, psychological, or both in orientation, would publish in it Burkhardt It was not a very successful gamble, however, for it lasted just seven years. Yerkes was President of the American Psychological Association, — In , he joined the Yale University Institute of Psychology as a comparative psychologist to study primates. He also sponsored three psychology students to study primates in the wild—gorilla and chimpanzee in Africa and howler monkeys on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Peterson — The African studies were too brief to obtain significant observations, but there was a biological research station on Barro Colorado Island, and Clarence Ray Carpenter studied the monkeys from to and did make substantial contributions.
Yerkes did not focus upon research at Orange Park to the neglect at Yale laboratories. For example, two monographs on chimpanzees under his supervision published in were based upon studies at Yale Cowles , Crawford Yerkes retired from the directorship of the Laboratories in and from Yale University in His graduate studies were at Johns Hopkins University Ph. In , the U. Microscopic studies strained his eyesight, and he switched to ornithology Barrow His photographs documented nesting behavior, which Herrick judged to be entirely instinctive.
He then began publishing a series of seven papers on the habits of bald eagles listed in Nice — , which culminated in The American Eagle: A Study in Natural and Civil History The earlier book attracted the attention of Konrad Lorenz, and he and Herrick then began to correspond Nice While studying eagles, Herrick also studied the nesting behavior of song birds and gulls and terns, described in Wild Birds at Home , which includes numerous photographs Fig. She followed her mother's example by graduating from Mount Holyoke College She studied for a graduate degree at Clark University for two years before marrying physiology graduate student L eonard Blaine Nice — While raising four daughters a fifth died as a child , she earned a master's degree from Clark University, with a thesis on the feeding habits of bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus, which she had published earlier Blaine's first appointment was at the Harvard University Medical School —13 , then he joined the faculty of the University of Oklahoma — In early August, , Margaret read in the Daily Oklahoman that state game warden Ben Watts advocated opening the state hunting season on mourning doves in August, since the young were supposedly flying by then Nice She doubted this, and on August 20, she found three dove nests on campus containing young.
That act was the beginning of her career as an ornithologist and ethologist. She also raised several pet mourning doves. Meise , early discoveries by Johann F. Naumann and Bernard Altum Nice's main behavioral studies were on song sparrows Melospiza melodia, which studies she mainly conducted in Columbus Nice , While she visited Berlin in , Mayr introduced her to Erwin Stresemann, and she commented upon her difficulty in having a lengthy study published in American ornithological journals.
She accepted, and so her first article on song sparrows was translated into German by Dr. She apparently first met Niko Tinbergen at the 56 th annual meeting of the American Ornithological Union in Washington, 17—22 October 38 Nice Nice's studies on the behavior and song of song sparrows also inspired others to continue such studies Searcy and Nowicki Fig.click
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He taught biology and geology at a nearby high school, —10, then entered the graduate zoology program at the University of Chicago, where he earned his MS. Englishman Julian S. Julian's life perhaps rivaled his grandfather's, except that his fame became even more international Baker , Olby His developing interest in bird behavior coincided with publication of ornithological literature featuring that same perspective Klopfer and Hailman —38, Durant —, Burkhardt —, :see index. He believed that his baboon findings were broadly valid for other primates as well. David Lack —73 , discussed in part 55 of this history, on animal population ecology Egerton b , deserves mention here on ethology Tinbergen , Thorpe , Burckhardt :see index.
Ethologist Niko Tinbergen, whose early career was in the Netherlands see below , thanks to Lack's influence, was invited to move to Oxford University in Kruuk , Burkhardt After Tinbergen's arriving, Dr. The physiologists who attended were less than enthusiastic with the new ethological science. Tinbergen trained ethologists at the same university as Lack was training ornithologists and Elton was training mammal population ecologists. Although he did not interact much with Elton, he did teach and advise some of Lack and Elton's students Crowcroft , , Kruuk Tinbergen also published possibly the two earliest surveys of ethology in English Tinbergen , b.