Scalable and Secure Internet Services and Architecture
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The other 0. That data transfer estimate was a worst case scenario because it's serving all of the content—including static assets—on each request from a Compute Engine instance and through a load balancer, without the benefit of caching or a content delivery network CDN.
This updated price estimate shows the savings in data transfer achieved by switching to the Google hosted libraries. This solution uses Cloud Storage for all files uploaded through the Redmine application. As described in the previous section, about 0.
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This architecture uses Cloud SQL to store all relational data for the application. Here is an estimate from the GCP Pricing Calculator that shows the anticipated cost for this part of the architecture costs. To deploy the example application described in this solution, visit the GitHub repository Scalable and resilient applications on GCP.
As part of your efforts to create a resilient and scalable application architecture, you need to decide on how you want to add new instances. Specifically, you need to determine how to automatically configure new instances as they come online. The configuration data includes the database connection information and the name of the Cloud Storage bucket that files are stored in. If you imagine these components as layers, you can visualize the entire stack that runs on each instance:.
This solution uses an instance template, which specifies the Compute Engine image that instances use when launched. Specifically, this solution uses the Ubuntu To get the rest of the stack automatically installed when a new instance comes up, you can use a combination of Compute Engine startup-scripts and Chef Solo to bootstrap at launch time. You can specify a startup script by adding a startup-script metadata attribute item to an instance template.
A startup script runs when the instance boots up. After a new instance boots and configures itself using the startup script and Chef, it needs to know some information before it can begin servicing requests.
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In this example, each instance needs to know database connection information, such as the hostname, username, and password, as well as the name of the Cloud Storage bucket to use and credentials to connect with. Every Compute Engine instance has metadata attributes associated with it that you can define. Earlier, you learned about adding the special startup-script metadata attribute, but you can also add arbitrary key-value pairs.
Here you can specify attributes in the instance template to include the configuration data the instances need to connect to the database and Cloud Storage bucket. You can also manually access metadata values from within an instance by using the local metadata service. Here you can use curl to retrieve the database password:. The bootstrapping approach taken in this solution involves starting with a default operating system image, installing all software at launch time with Chef, and using instance metadata to provide app config data.
The cookbook can be version controlled, shared, and used to provision virtual machines locally for testing, using Vagrant or Docker, or to configure servers in your data center or with different cloud providers. Image management is also simplified: in this case of this example application, you only need to track the one base OS image the application uses. Some disadvantages to consider include potentially slow launch times, as all software is being downloaded and installed—in some cases requiring compilation. It is also important to consider dependencies this method introduces: in this example, Chef installed a number of packages from apt, Rubygems, and GitHub.
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If any of those repositories are unavailable while a new instance is starting up, its configuration will fail. For example, you might:. Now when a new instance is launched, it only needs to install Redmine. Boot time is improved and you've reduced the number of external package dependencies. You could take the custom image approach even further and bake absolutely everything into an image, including all dependencies, application source, and configuration.
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This has the advantage of fastest boot time and zero external dependencies, but now if anything at all changes in your application, you have to create a new image and update the instance template. Consider the approaches to bootstrapping an instance as being on a continuum. More configuration at launch time means slower boot times but fewer images to manage.
More configuration baked into a custom image means faster boot times and fewer dependencies, but potentially many more images to manage. For most customers, the right approach is a compromise somewhere in the middle. Choose what makes sense for you and your application. Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. For details, see our Site Policies. Last updated September 13, Google Cloud. Send feedback. Defining scalability and resilience Before describing a sample application architecture, it's helpful to define the terms scalability and resilience.
Scalability: adjusting capacity to meet demand A scalable application is one that works well with 1 user or 1,, users, and gracefully handles peaks and dips in traffic automatically. Resilience: designed to withstand the unexpected A highly-available, or resilient, application is one that continues to function despite expected or unexpected failures of components in the system.
Designing an application architecture for a resilient application typically involves: Load balancers to monitor servers and distribute traffic to servers that can best handle the requests Hosting virtual machines in multiple regions Configuring a robust storage solution GCP: flexible and cost-effective Traditional architectures that support scalability and resilience often require significant investments in resources.
Building resilient and scalable architectures with GCP The following table shows how different GCP services map to the key requirements necessary to make applications scalable and resilient. Overview of components Each component in the example application architecture plays a role in ensuring the application is both scalable and resilient. Zone A zone is an isolated location within a region. Instance template An instance template defines a machine type, image, zone, labels, and other instance properties.
Managed instance group A managed instance group is a collection of homogeneous instances based on an instance template. Cloud Storage Cloud Storage allows objects usually files to be stored and retrieved with a simple and scalable interface. Resilience For this example architecture to be resilient, it needs to automatically replace instances that have failed or have become unavailable. When a new instance comes online, it should: Understand its role in the system.
Configure itself automatically. Discover any of its dependencies.
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Start handling requests automatically. To replace a failed instance automatically you can use several Compute Engine components together: Startup scripts Managed instance group Instance template A startup script runs when your instance boots up or restarts. The following diagram shows how these components work together: Startup script Instance template Instance group manager Managed instance group A managed instance group and its corresponding instance group manager can be zone-specific or regional resources.
Health checks At this point, the example application has almost all the tools it needs to be resilient. This architecture lets you use two services to identify instances that are capable of serving requests: Health checks. An HTTP health check specifies the port and path to execute the health check against on each instance.
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The health check expects a OK response from a healthy instance. Backend services.
A backend service defines one or more instance groups that receive traffic from a load balancer. The backend service specifies the port and protocol exposed by the instances, for example HTTP port 80 , as well as the HTTP health check to be used against instances in the instance groups. Data resilience with Cloud SQL The three main areas of any application architecture are networking, computing, and storage. Cloud SQL lets you choose between two replication types: Synchronous replication.
With synchronous replication, updates are copied to multiple zones before returning to the client.