The Archaean: Geological and Geochemical Windows into the Early Earth

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This Symposium will focus on developments in the understanding of the origin of granites and related rocks including volcanics ; their distribution in time and space; controls on their compositional character and variation; their role in the evolution of the crust; and the development of igneous metallogenic provinces. The relative roles and importance of new crustal generation versus recycling, and the controls on magma generation and compositions with consequent beneficial aspects e. This Symposium covers all aspects of magmatism in subduction zones and seeks contributions that address major questions remaining in this area.

We particularly welcome contributions on the subduction systems of the SW Pacific where contrasts between continental and oceanic subduction magmatism are clearly defined.

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We therefore especially invite contributions related to continental rifts, and mid-ocean ridge spreading environments. A special focus of this theme will be new understandings related to the timing of melt generation, migration, crystallization and cooling of magmatic rocks in these environments. However all aspects of magma petrogenesis are welcome. Of particular interest is the role, or not, of mantle plumes in the generation of intraplate magmas. Some e. To what extent can intraplate magmatism be explained through fertile domains in the asthenosphere or lithospheric mantle?

Do mantle plumes carry a diagnostic geochemical signature? What can geochronology and paleomagnetism tell about the time-space distribution of intraplate magmatism? Submissions addressing these, and other issues relating to the petrogenesis and geochemistry of intraplate magmatism, are welcomed for this Symposium. They are distinguished by high intensity bursts of principally mantle-derived magma to the crust and surface over geologically short timescales.

LIP volcanism had a major impact on the lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, and consequently has been implicated as a driving factor in environmental change based on the temporal relationship with several mass extinction events through the Phanerozoic. Over the last 10 years, proposed mechanisms for environmental change include volcanic CO2 or S emissions, gas emissions from clathrate or hydrocarbon disturbance, and Fe fertilisation of oceans from ash loading.

This Symposium seeks cross-disciplinary contributions from the Earth, atmospheric, climate, and biological sciences that are investigating the lithospheric to atmospheric impact of LIPs. Contributions focusing on assessing the integrated impact and the rates and mechanisms of Earth system response to LIP magmatism are encouraged. The Symposia in this theme will include how metamorphic reactions monitor changes in the physical and chemical properties of the crust; constraints on fluid compositions from near surface alteration to subduction zone and collisional metamorphism to ore formation; and geochemical constraints on timescales of metamorphic processes.

We encourage contributions from a wide range of disciplines such as modelling of phase equilibria, geochronology, geochemistry, experimental and metamorphic petrology and structural geology. High- and ultra high-pressure metamorphism, seismicity, arc magmatism, high-pressure rock exhumation and mountain building are processes allied with subduction-zone metamorphism and fluid activity. This interdisciplinary Symposium aims to bring together a wide range of research including experimental studies, modelling, and the use of oceanic and high-pressure rocks, mantle wedge materials and arc rocks as natural laboratories to elucidate the relationships between recycling processes, mass transfer and tectonics in subduction zones.

Particular emphasis will be given to processes and effects related to 1 formation and alteration of the oceanic lithosphere and element cycles in oceans; 2 devolatilization and fluid escape from subducting slabs 3 the subduction zone cycle for volatiles and fluid mobilized elements and inferences for arc and within plate magmatism 4 mechanisms of fluid migration and mass transport; v subduction and exhumation tectonics.

Contributions may include theoretical, numerical and experimental constraints on processes such as heat transfer, cation diffusion and reaction kinetics, as well as natural examples in which rates and durations are constrained by petrological, geochronological or thermochronological analyses. This Symposium will explore these mechanisms in fluid-deficient to fluid-saturated environments, in both experimental and natural systems.

References and Recommended Reading

Contributions to any aspect of this topic are welcomed, including but not limited to investigations of: processes, kinetics, and timescales of mineral reactions and fluid-rock interaction; diffusional and advective transport of elements and fluids; methods of quantifying elemental and fluid fluxes; heat transport by fluid flow; and consequences for the interpretation of metamorphic rocks and orogenic belts. Linking reliable age information with robust P—T information enables one to define well-constrained P—T—t paths, and to quantify rates of heating and cooling, and burial and exhumation.

These data provide a framework to discriminate among tectonic models for orogenesis, particularly in relation to the mechanisms of formation and exhumation of ultrahigh high-pressure metamorphic belts and the mechanisms of heating of high-temperature metamorphic belts.

Earth's Earliest Climate

This Symposium integrates field-based and modelling studies in petrology, geochemistry, geochronology and tectonics. Of particular interest are contributions that integrate multiple techniques to understand orogenic processes involving extreme pressure or temperature. It occurs in the deep crust of arcs along convergent plate margins, and in collisional mountain belts and orogenic plateaus, as recorded by extensive migmatite and granulite terranes now exposed at Earth's surface.

As melt develops on the edges and faces of mineral grains it affects rock strength and strain rate, which has important consequences for the way the crust deforms and the style of orogenic belts. During the Phanerozoic anatexis was potentially an important component in the exhumation of rocks from ultrahigh pressure mantle conditions after continental subduction, and during the Archean partial melting of subducted or sagducted basaltic crust gave rise to granite types that are rare on Earth today.

The nature of the source and the conditions under which melting occurs determine the character of the resulting melts, as exemplified by secular change in granite type and the relationship between tectonic setting and granite chemistry. The extraction and ascent of melt led to the redistribution of elements in the crust, and was responsible for the large-scale compositional and density structure that stabilized the continents over geological time. This session deals with all issues relating to anatexis, including the source of the heat responsible for widespread melting and the information that can be retrieved from mineral assemblages and microstructures in partially melted rocks.

It will explore the mechanisms of melt transfer and the large-scale geodynamic consequences of partial melting in diverse settings. Contributions that use or integrate data from field observations, petrology, melting experiments, geochemistry, geophysics, and thermodynamic, numerical and analogue modelling are welcome. Likely Symposia topics include the Ediacaran and the Cambrian explosion; Paleozoic biofacies, biogeography and bioevents; evolution of hominins; oxygen and evolution; Archean life; Gondwanan Mesozoic vertebrates; Mesozoic bioevents; origin and evolution of marsupials; early vertebrate evolution; Cenozoic marine environments; modern techniques in paleontology; and general paleontology.

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Kathleen GREY kath. This Symposium aims to cover all that happened in the interim. In contrast to the rest of the Proterozoic, there is considerable data on the Cryogenian and Ediacaran that is promising for global correlation and that will impact on decisions about stratigraphic boundaries. An overview of the Proterozoic as a whole is timely. Benjamin KEAR benjamin. The Mesozoic was bracketed by the two largest extinction events ever to have befallen life on earth and the modern biota still reflects the winners and losers of those events.

However, there are many more subtle events within the Mesozoic, the results of which are still evident.

This Symposium aims to cover all aspects of these events and this evolutionary trajectory. Stephen Gallagher sjgall unimelb. This theme invites contributions that fall within Symposia on: modern reefs and climate change; fossil reefs; microbial carbonates, including stromatolites; and secular changes in carbonate sedimentology and geochemistry.

This session focuses on the significance of microbial carbonates for understanding long-term changes in ocean-atmosphere chemistry and carbonate sedimentation. It emphasizes recent research on the processes of formation, macro- and microfabrics, geochemistry, and sedimentary roles of microbial carbonates; in particular the factors that determine their abundance and distribution in space and time. We welcome presentations on all aspects of these topics based on present-day and ancient examples in terrestrial, fluvial, lacustrine, and marine environments - including reefs and carbonate mud mounds.

Exon anu. Marine geoscience, seabed mapping, oceanography and paleoceanography are closely interrelated themes, and are particularly important to Australia with its large marine jurisdiction. This theme will include Symposia on the International Ocean Drilling Program IODP , with its many facets including deep biosphere below the ocean floor; the importance of geoscience in making offshore jurisdictional claims under the United Nations Convention Law of Sea; seabed mapping for living and non-living resource assessment and the development of marine protected areas; the marine geoscience aspects of the International Polar Year IPY ; deep biosphere below the ocean floor; coastal and offshore sedimentology; and physical oceanography.

Neville EXON neville. It deals with how the Earth worked, is working and will work. The aim of this workshop is to report scientific results from these and other expeditions, and advanced plans for other expeditions. There is no geographic limit to this Symposium although we expect most papers to cover the Pacific or Indian oceans. The Symposium on palaeoceanography and sea-level records is a forum to examine marine palaeoenvironments, both in terms of their physical and biological characteristics.

Sea level has changed at a series of different time scales, as a consequence of different processes, such as plate-tectonics, Quaternary ice ages, isostatic responses to loading, and steric variations related to climate change. Papers on this diversity of topics are welcomed for this session.

Figures and Tables

Waves, tides and ocean currents often operate simultaneously over different spatial-temporal scales and over a range of seabed types, making for a highly complex system for measurements and modelling. Progress has been associated with the development of new instrumentation for collecting oceanographic observations, with advances in computer modelling, seabed sampling and mapping technology. Applications are diverse and include understanding depositional environments, seabed stability associated with structures and dredging, habitat characterisation and pollution dispersal.

It will explore the theoretical and observational studies that support our broader understanding of margin evolution in a range of sedimentary environments globally. In addition, studies that investigate inter-basin correlations, the transfer of material from shelf to slope and rise, event sedimentation, and the impact of high-frequency climatic and tectonic variability are strongly encouraged.

Especially relevant are presentations that address these factors in the context of unravelling linkages between terrestrial and marine sedimentary processes. Andrew HEAP andrew. Researchers are using marine geoscience data and insights to inform decisions across many sectors, including marine transportation, national security, offshore energy resources both non-renewable and renewable , species- and spatial-based management, and sovereignty i. Much of this work has been made possible through high spatial resolution geomorphic and geological mapping and sampling of the seabed from shallow continental shelves to the deep sea, and under polar ice.

Industry is gearing up for initial mining of sea floor volcanogenic massive sulfides VMS , initially in the western Pacific.

Theme 6: Early Earth and evolution of planets

Marine aggregates for beach nourishment and construction materials continue to be the mainstay of marine mining in the region. Pioneer Investors are positioned with the International Seabed Authority for exploration and eventual mining of manganese nodules in the international waters of the Pacific. Other organisations are looking at these deposits in the Exclusive Economic Zones of island nations in the South Pacific.

Exploration and assessment continues on cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts on oceanic seamounts throughout the region. The IGC Symposium will encapsulate recent developments in marine minerals research in Oceania and serve as a snapshot of the situation in this field. At the same time concerns have grown over the impacts of climate change and human influences on both regions.

This Theme will include Symposia on major developments in polar earth sciences and will also mark the centenary of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition led by Sir Douglas Mawson recognising the central scientific focus of the early Antarctic expeditions. Symposia are planned on marine biogeochemistry, geological processes and human impacts in polar regions; Rodinia to Gondwana: development of the Southern supercontinent; and polar climate archives integrated with numerical modelling and their global significance. This Symposium will focus on recent advances in our understanding of Arctic and sub-Arctic sedimentary basins and orogens, and implications for designing new geoscientific experiments in the Arctic region.

The geological history of this isolated ocean basin has been controlled by global-scale boundary conditions such as the accretion of terranes in the North-American and Russian cordillera, the evolution of Pacific plate subduction, and the propagation of the mid-Atlantic spreading ridge.