The Chemistry of Colloids
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Particles of colloidal size are formed by two methods:.
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A few solid substances, when brought into contact with water, disperse spontaneously and form colloidal systems. Gelatin, glue, starch, and dehydrated milk powder behave in this manner. The particles are already of colloidal size; the water simply disperses them.
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Powdered milk particles of colloidal size are produced by dehydrating milk spray. Some atomizers produce colloidal dispersions of a liquid in air. We can prepare an emulsion by shaking together or blending two immiscible liquids. This breaks one liquid into droplets of colloidal size, which then disperse throughout the other liquid. Oil spills in the ocean may be difficult to clean up, partly because wave action can cause the oil and water to form an emulsion. In many emulsions, however, the dispersed phase tends to coalesce, form large drops, and separate.
Therefore, emulsions are usually stabilized by an emulsifying agent , a substance that inhibits the coalescence of the dispersed liquid. For example, a little soap will stabilize an emulsion of kerosene in water. Milk is an emulsion of butterfat in water, with the protein casein as the emulsifying agent. Mayonnaise is an emulsion of oil in vinegar, with egg yolk components as the emulsifying agents. Condensation methods form colloidal particles by aggregation of molecules or ions.
If the particles grow beyond the colloidal size range, drops or precipitates form, and no colloidal system results. Clouds form when water molecules aggregate and form colloid-sized particles. If these water particles coalesce to form adequately large water drops of liquid water or crystals of solid water, they settle from the sky as rain, sleet, or snow.
Many condensation methods involve chemical reactions. We can prepare a red colloidal suspension of iron III hydroxide by mixing a concentrated solution of iron III chloride with hot water:.
A colloidal gold sol results from the reduction of a very dilute solution of gold III chloride by a reducing agent such as formaldehyde, tin II chloride, or iron II sulfate:. Some gold sols prepared in are still intact the particles have not coalesced and settled , illustrating the long-term stability of many colloids. Pioneers made soap by boiling fats with a strongly basic solution made by leaching potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3 , from wood ashes with hot water. Animal fats contain polyesters of fatty acids long-chain carboxylic acids.
When animal fats are treated with a base like potassium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, glycerol and salts of fatty acids such as palmitic, oleic, and stearic acid are formed. The salts of fatty acids are called soaps. The sodium salt of stearic acid, sodium stearate, has the formula C 17 H 35 CO 2 Na and contains an uncharged nonpolar hydrocarbon chain, the C 17 H 35 — unit, and an ionic carboxylate group, the — unit Figure 3. Detergents soap substitutes also contain nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, such as C 12 H 25 —, and an ionic group, such as a sulfate— , or a sulfonate— Figure 4.
The Chemistry of Colloids and Some Technical Applications.
Soaps form insoluble calcium and magnesium compounds in hard water; detergents form water-soluble products—a definite advantage for detergents. The cleaning action of soaps and detergents can be explained in terms of the structures of the molecules involved. The hydrocarbon nonpolar end of a soap or detergent molecule dissolves in, or is attracted to, nonpolar substances such as oil, grease, or dirt particles. The ionic end is attracted by water polar , illustrated in Figure 5. As a result, the soap or detergent molecules become oriented at the interface between the dirt particles and the water so they act as a kind of bridge between two different kinds of matter, nonpolar and polar.
As a consequence, dirt particles become suspended as colloidal particles and are readily washed away. The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig on April 20, , in the Gulf of Mexico near Mississippi began the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum.
In the 87 days following the blowout, an estimated 4. Original Research 1 July Professor of Biochemistry in the University of Minnesota. Abstract Colloid chemistry has been defined as "the chemistry of the infinitely little. Citations Citation. Published: Ann Intern Med. DOI: Related Articles.follow url
Engineering Chemistry: Lesson 5. Colloids - I
Review: In sepsis, the effect of resuscitation with crystalloid and colloid fluids on mortality varies Annals of Internal Medicine; 10 : JC Annals of Internal Medicine; 5 : Review: Fluid resuscitation with colloids does not reduce mortality more than crystalloids in critically ill patients Annals of Internal Medicine; 10 : JC View More View Less. Solutions and colloids don't separate.
If you shine a beam of light into a colloid, it displays the Tyndall effect , which makes the beam of light visible in the colloid because light is scattered by the particles. An example of the Tyndall effect is the visibility of light from car headlamps through fog. Colloids usually form one of two ways:. Droplets of particles may be dispersed into another medium by spraying, milling, high-speed mixing, or shaking.
Small dissolved particles may be condensed into colloidal particles by redox reactions, precipitation, or condensation. Continue Reading.